What are the important factors for coverage and Line of Sight (LoS)?

Prior to starting the design process, it is necessary to determine the application conditions (environment) and the coverage to be achieved. Depending on the specifications, design factors can be determined as follows:

  • Regulatory output powers with additional consideration of the targeted application operation life
  • Frequency Range/ISM Bands, i.e. Sub-1-GHz, 2.45 GHz, etc.
  • Modulation type (BPSK, O-QPSK, OFDM)
  • Coding and error correction method
  • Antenna type (integrated antenna, external antenna, antenna diversity, directional characteristics)
  • Network topology (point-to-point connection, star topology, tree structure, mesh topologies)

These factors significantly influence the later operational range or coverage.

For the design characterization, it is necessary to describe the reception and transmission properties by means of an antenna measuring chamber and/or a near field measuring station, and to obtain qualitatively verifiable property descriptions. In addition, a free field test ("LoS") can provide additional assessments of the range, but never an absolute statement regarding guaranteed propagation characteristics in changing environmental conditions.

The only way to react to changing environmental conditions is by implementing appropriate conceptual measures and provisions in the network planning.

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